Using mobile information technology applications to improve outpatient adherence to prescribed treatment and behavioural changes may be a novel approach for more effective self-management of some chronic diseases and conditions. Non-adherence is a major barrier undermining all healing efforts within disease management programs resulting in the waste of important human and social resources. This indicates that an innovative attempt could be helpful in combating non-adherence through the latest mobile healthcare technologies, combined with a carefully planned approach that encourages self-management of chronic diseases or conditions. This paper analyzes the factors affecting patient adherence and formulates concrete interventions through which mobile and wireless solutions may address these determinants for some chronic illnesses that may be cared for in outpatient conditions. Six types of interventions are analyzed by mirroring expected benefits and possible challenges associated with their implementation: monitoring, reminding, consulting, informing, supporting, and educating. The work outlines some of the business aspects of using a mobile healthcare philosophy in this area and concludes with several principle questions that will stimulate further research into collaboration between patients and the healthcare system, using mobile solutions in an endeavour to improve adherence.